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Bromine

Chemical Name: Bromine

Formula: Br2

CAS Number: 7726-95-6

Bromine content: (%): 99.8

Molecular Weight: 159.81

General info and Field of Use:
Bromine is part of the Halogen group. It exists in nature as bromide salts. Bromine is obtained from seawater, natural brines, or as the by -product brines of potash recovery.

The average bromine concentration in seawater is about 70 ppm; in brine wells it may range from 2,500 to 4,000 ppm, while in the surface layers of the Dead Sea, the richest source on earth, it reaches 4,500-5,000 ppm. The estimated reserves of Bromine in the Dead Sea, expressed in terms of Magnesium Bromide, are one thousand million tons.

At Sdom, the Dead Sea brines undergo solar evaporation. The end-brines remaining after precipitation of Sodium Chloride, Carnalite, Magnesium Chloride and Calcium Chloride, are Bromine-enriched to as much as 12,000 ppm. It is from these end-brines that elemental Bromine is extracted.

Elemental Bromine is the starting point for manufacturing a wide range of Bromine compounds. The elemental Bromine has a wide range of uses such as industrial synthesis, Bromo Butyl Rubber, Fine Chemicals, Pharmaceuticals (API), Agrochemicals, Biocides and Flame Retardants compounds.

Bromine is highly reactive and is a powerful oxidizing agent in the presence of water. It reacts vigorously with Amines, Olefins and Phenols as well as Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Ketones and Acids, Brominating them either by addition or substitution. With many of the metals and elements, anhydrous Bromine is less reactive than wet Bromine; however, dry Bromine reacts vigorously with Aluminum, Titanium, Mercury as well as Alkaline earth and Alkaline Metals.

Typical Properties:

Appearance Heavy red-brown, fuming liquid with a sharp, harsh irritating odour
Melting point/range -7.3 °C
Boiling point/range 58.8 °C
Evaporation rate (ether=1) High
Vapor pressure 175 mmHg (20°C)
Vapor density 5.5
Solubility:

Solubility in water

Partition coefficient (n-octanol/water)

 

3.5 g/100ml at 20°C

LogP – 1.3 (estimated)

Explosive properties Not explosive
Oxidizing properties Oxidize

Specifications:

Bromine Assay % Min – 99.8
Iodine (ppm) Max – 1
Chlorine (ppm) Max – 60
Heavy Metals (as Pb) ppm Heavy Metals (as Pb) ppm Max – 1
Residue after Evaporation (ppm) Max – 30
Specific Gravity at 20oC Min – 31.2
Sulfur Compounds as SO4 (ppm) Max – 10
Moisture (ppm) Max – 30
Total Organic Matter as Carbon (ppm) Max – 30
Iron (Fe) ppm Max – 1

 

Toxicity:
Bromine is corrosive to eyes, skin and mucous membranes. Liquid or concentrated bromine vapors may cause severe burns that ulcerate and are slow to heal. Direct contact results in serious corneal and skin burns.

Prolonged exposure may cause chronic bronchitis, contact and allergic dermatitis.

Packaging:
Bromine is supplied as a liquid in lead-lined steel portable tanks (isotanks).

Storage & Handling:
Bromine needs to be store in a dry, well-ventilated area, away from incompatible materials. Outside shaded or detached storage areas are preferred.

Containers/ Isotanks should be stored upright and all be clearly labelled.

Glass, ceramic, nickel or lead containers are suitable for Bromine. Only highly fluorinated plastics (PVDF) will resist corrosion.

A free space of 10% by volume should be left in the container.

Links:

  1. BROMINE- Safety Book -Click for PDF